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    Measurement and correlation study of silymarin solubility in supercritical carbon dioxide with and without a cosolvent using semi-empirical models and back-propagation artificial neural networks

    Gang Yang;Zhe Li;Qun Shao;Nianping Feng;Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Shanghai University of Traditional Chinese Medicine;Open Innovation, University of Bradford;  
    The solubility data of compounds in supercritical fluids and the correlation between the experimental solubility data and predicted solubility data are crucial to the development of supercritical technologies. In the present work, the solubility data of silymarin(SM) in both pure supercritical carbon dioxide(SCCO_2) and SCCO_2 with added cosolvent was measured at temperatures ranging from 308 to 338 K and pressures from 8 to 22 MPa. The experimental data were fit with three semi-empirical density-based models(Chrastil, Bartle and Mendez-Santiago and Teja models) and a back-propagation artificial neural networks(BPANN) model. Interaction parameters for the models were obtained and the percentage of average absolute relative deviation(AARD%) in each calculation was determined. The correlation results were in good agreement with the experimental data. A comparison among the four models revealed that the experimental solubility data were more fit with the BPANN model with AARDs ranging from 1.14% to 2.15% for silymarin in pure SCCO_2 and with added cosolvent. The results provide fundamental data for designing the extraction of SM or the preparation of its particle using SCCO_2 techniques.
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